Since security is aimed at the avoidance of incidents, decision making about security usually refers to so-called counterfactuals, i.e. events that have in fact not occurred yet. This can happen on the basis of detailed risk assessment or more intuitive and uncertain assumptions about dangers. Students working on this topic are expected to analyse the arguments that are used by in the context of security to initiate certain measures and compare them to potential alternate approaches.
Some further background information can be found in this paper.